Backdating documents under english law

Under various jurisdictions, an LOI may be held unenforceable on the charterer and the P&I Clubs will usually not give cover for unjustly issued clean b/ls.The initiative for issuing a clean b/l against LOI can, however, also come from the charterer as he knows that for the shipper, a claused b/l is worthless, in fact unacceptable, as usually with an unmarked b/l, only then the shipper will be entitled to payment under an LC.Commercial practice therefore sometimes dictates the carrier issues a b/l without any mentioning of defective cargo or insufficient packing.Whether such commercial practice can or should be allowed it seems to be in the American Accord case is another question.SG_POPUP_DATA[25] ={"id":"25","title":"CTA Popup Form","type":"html","effect":"No effect","0":"width","1":"80%","height":"100%","delay":0,"duration":1,"2":"initial Width","3":"80%","initial Height":"100%","width":"80%","esc Key":"on","scrolling":"on","reposition":"on","overlay Close":"on","content 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All Posts":"","all Selected Posts":["-1"],"allow Countries":"allow","country Name":"","country Iso":"","disable Popup":"","disable Popup Overlay":"","popup Closing Timer":"","yes Button Label":"","no Button Label":"","restriction Url":"","yes Button Background Color":"","no Button Background Color":"","yes Button Text Color":"","no Button Text Color":"","yes Button Radius":0,"no Button Radius":0,"push To Bottom":"","once Expires Time":"7","sg Overlay Custom Classs":"sg-popup-overlay","sg Content Custom Classs":"sg-popup-content","theme-close-text":"Close","social Buttons":"","social Options":"","countdown Options":"","exit Intent Options":"","video Options":"","fblike Options":"","html":"Do You Need a Lawyer?These offences continue to apply for any offences committed before 15 January 2007.The shipper of the goods, also the beneficiary under the LC, need not necessarily be aware of this.

backdating documents under english law-25backdating documents under english law-82backdating documents under english law-59

Ship owners should be aware though that an LOI may not give the protection they seek.

Under US law, this does not constitute a fraud, because it is not material enough.?

These questions touch upon the function and value of a b/l.

It would in my opinion jeopardize the function of a b/l, particularly its document of title function.

Just as the Dutch Supreme Court ruled, a third party b/l holder must be able to trust the correctness and be protected if it is not.

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