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Bard with the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert * London and New York First published 1999 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. These finely painted wood coffins are good examples of the geometric style of decoration popular in the Middle Kingdom.

"To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge's collection of thousands of e Books please go to Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 © 1999 Routledge All rights reserved. The inscription down the front of each gives the funerary menu.

At Boston University, technical help with computer files was provided by Qadeer Hassan, Sarah Mascia, Ann-Eliza Lewis and Ben Thomas.

John Ziemba and Lea Koonce cheerfully sent many faxes for me.

Without the help of these friends and colleagues this volume could not have been completed.

The end result, of course, is my own responsibility, and although there are certainly lacunae in the list of entries, I hope it will provide a useful reference and overview to all those interested in the wonderful things of ancient Egypt. BARD List of abbreviations Aa AAR AASOR AJA ASAE AVDAIK BAR BASOR Bd E Bf BES BIE BIFAO BSFE CA CAJ Cd E CRIPEL DOAW FIFAO GM HAB Agyptologische Abhandlungen, Wiesbaden African Archaeological Review Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research American Journal of Archaeology Annales du Service des Antiquites de I'Egypte, Caire Archaologische Veroffentlichungen, Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo British Archaeological Reports, Oxford Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Bibliotheque d'Etude, Institut francais d'archeologie orientale, Caire Beitrage zur agyptischen Bauforschung und Altertumskunde, Kairo, Zurich, Wiesbaden Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar, New York Bulletin de I'lnstitut d'Egypte, Caire Bulletin de I'lnstitut frangais d'archeologie orientale, Caire Bulletin de la Societe francais d'egyptologie, Paris Current Anthropology Cambridge Archaeological Journal Chronique d'Egypte, Bruxelles Cahier de Recherches de I'lnstitut de Papyrologie et d'Egyptologie de Lille Denkschrift der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Phil.-hist. Westendorf, Wiesbaden Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology Muncher Agyptologische Studien, Berlin, Munich Memoires piblis par les Membres de I'Institut francais d'archeologie orientale du Caire Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archdologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo Metropolitan Museum of Art Journal Newsletter of the American Research Center in Egypt Oriental Institute Publications, University of Chicago Revue d'Egyptologie Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Chicago: The Oriental Institute Press Sanderschrift des Deutschen Arhaologischen Instituts, Abteilung, Kairo, Mainz World Archaeology Zeitschrift fur Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Leipzig, Berlin List of contributors Barbara Adams Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, University College London Matthew Adams University Museum, University of Pennsylvania Shmuel Ah'*" Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel David A.

Bard; with the editing assistance of Steven Blake Shubert. The first section of the Encyclopedia comprises fourteen overview essays.

E53 1998 98-16350 932

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt/edited by Kathryn A. From Hawara 82 Map of Naga ed-Deir sites, circa 1900 666 83 Petrie's Predynastic sites in the Nagada region 671 84 Stages in the manufacture of a Predynastic bifacial knife 684 85 Predynastic stone tools 685 86 Lower Paleolithic handax (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 723 87 Middle Paleolithic flake-tools (a, c, e) and Levallois flakes (b, 724 d, f-h) (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 88 Upper Paleolithic blade-tools and and flake-tools (from a site 726 near Edfu) 89 Late Paleolithic bladelet-tools (from a site near Esna) 727 90 Late Paleolithic ostrich eggshell, ground stone and bone tools 728 (from Wadi Kubbaniya) 91 Sites of the Persian period in Egypt 740 92 Subterranean chambers showing wall paintings and engaged 824 statuary, tomb of Queen Meresankh III at Giza (G 7530-7540) 93 Decorated class pot with scenes of boats, ostriches and the 831 "Nagada plant" 94 Map of the Eastern Desert with principal routes and emporia, 835 on both the Nile and the Red Sea 95 Wall reliefs in the tomb of General Horemheb in the New 850 Kingdom necropolis at Saqqara 96 The tomb of Iniuia in the New Kingdom cemetery, Saqqara 851 97 1st and 2nd Dynasty tombs at North Saqqara 856 98 Model of Zoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara 860 99 Cross-section of Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara, showing the 863 different stages of construction 100 Map of the sacred animal necropolis, Saqqara 870 101 Plan of Serapeum Saqqara 873 102 Map of the monuments and inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim, 882 Sinai 103 Relief of a ship from a pyramid temple of Sahure, 5th Dynasty 891 104 North Sinai, granary at New Kingdom site BEA-10 898 105 Location of Siwa Oasis and the Qattara Depression in the 901 Western Desert 106 Archaeological plan of the area from Aghurmi to Ubayda 903 107 Relief in the Umm 'Ubaydah temple, Siwa Oasis: processions 904 of gods and King Wenamen wearing the Libyan chief's ostrich feather headdress and kneeling in front of the shrine of Amen 108 An 18th Dynasty representation of the stone vessel drilling and 915 boring tool 109 Tell el-Amarna, general plan and city limits 932 110 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the central city zone 933 111 Tell el-Amarna, Stela N 935 112 Tell el-Amarna, restored plan of the Great Temple sanctuary 936 113 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the house of Hatiay, Overseer of the 938 King's Works 114 Sketch of the three successive fortresses at Tell el-Herr (1988) 957 115 Royal funerary temples in West Thebes 998 116 A, Medinet Habu, 18th Dynasty temple; B, Funerary temple of 1001 Tuthmose II 117 Funerary temple of Hatshepsut 1002 118 Funerary temple of Tuthmose III 1002 119 Funerary temple of Seti I 1003 120 Funerary temple of Ramesses II 1003 121 Funerary temple of Ramesses III 1004 122 Thebes, el-Tarif, potsherds from the Tarifian layer, sixth 1012 millennium BC 123 Plan of Tomb KV5, Valley of the Kings, Thebes 1019 124 Thebes, the Valley of the Queens, plan of tombs in the main 1022 wadi 125 Predynastic and Early Dynastic cemeteries in the Ma'adi-Tura 1043 region 126 Plan of the tomb of Tutankhamen 1047 127 Remains of the Sadd el-Kafara dam in the Wadi Garawi in 1059 1982 (view from upstream) 128 Upstream face of the northern wall (right bank of the wadi) 1061 129 Location of recorded scripts at Wadi Maghara, Sinai 1073 Map of Egypt showing sites described in this work 1 Abu Gurab 2 Abu Roash 3 Abu Sha'ar 4 Abusir 5 Abydos 6 el-Ada'ima 7 Akhmim 8 Antinoopolis 9 Apis 10 Armant 11 Asyut 12 el-Badari 13 Balabish 14 Behbeit el-Hagara 15 Beni Hasan 16 Berenike 17 Berenike Panchrysos 18 Bir Umm Fawakhir 19 Busiris 20 Buto 21 Dahshur 22 Dakhla 23 Deir el-Ballas 24 Deir el-Bersha 25 Dendera 26 Dorginarti 27 Edfu 28 Farafra part of region 29 Farafra part of region 30 Fayum 31 Gebel Barkal 32 Gebel el-Haridi 33 Gebel el-Silsila 34 Gebel Zeit 35 Gebelein 36 Gurob 37 Hatnub 38 Hawara 39 Helwan 40 Heracleopolis 41 Hierakonpolis 42 Hu/Hiw 43 Kafr Tarkhan 44 Kerma 45 Kharga Oasis 46 Kom Abu Bello 47 Kom el-Hisn 48 Kom Ombo 49 el-Kurru 50 Lahun 51 el-Lisht 52 Mama 53 Mazghuna 54 Meir 55 Mendes 56 Meydum 57 Mons Porphyrites 58 Naga ed-Deir 59 Nagada 60 Naukratis 61 Nuri 62 el-Omari 63 Oxyrhynchus 64 Philae 65 Qantir/Pi-Ramesses 66 Qasr Ibrim 67 Qau el-Kebir (Antaeopolis) 68 Quft 69Qus 70 Quseir el-Qadim 71 Sanam 72 Saqqara 73 Seila 74 Serabit el-Khadim 75 Sikait-Zubara 76 Siwa Oasis 77 Tanis 78 Taposiris Magna 79 Tell el-Amarna 80 Tell Basta 81 Tell ed-Dab'a 82 Tell el-Farkha 83 Tell el-Herr 84 Tell el-Mashkuta 85 Tell el-Muqdam 86 Tell el-Yahudiya 87 Thebes, Qurnet Murai 88 Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna 89 Thmuis 90 Tod 91 Tukh el-Qaramus 92 Tuna el-Gebel 93 Tura 94 Wadi el-Hudi 95 Wadi Garawi 96 Wadi Gasus 97 Wadi Hammamat 98 Wadi Abu Had 99 Wadi Maghara 100 Wadi Kubbaniya 101 Wadi Tumilat 102 Zawiyet el-Aryan 103 Baharia e*™*^ ,h Mopoki .:-ufii) J f' ■■ HJanafc GLUD j CAIRO ^ V - 5phri Map of Cairo showing sites described in this work ■ -^ Luxor Map of Thebes showing sites described in this work How to use this Encyclopedia Structure The Encyclopedia opens with a map of the region and a chronology which provides a context for the material which follows.

Janet Johnson and Donald Whitcomb were helpful in discussions as the project evolved.

Tim Kendall suggested that Nubian sites should also be included in the encyclopedia, and while a number of Nubian sites are missing, some of the major ones that are relevant to the culture of ancient Egypt can be found in this volume.

Hierakonpolis; sometimes it is the modern Arabic name for the (nearby) town, e.g. Please use the index for guidance on alternative names.

d transliteration of Egyptian words, for example, hwt , Acknowledgments Work on this book began in 1991 at the instigation of Kennie Lyman, and many friends and colleagues were helpful in its undertaking. Edwards, with whom I had the great privilege to engage in a correspondence that was both educational and enjoyable.

3-dc21 CIP ISBN 0-203-98283-5 Master e-book ISBN ISBN - (Adobe e-Reader Format) ISBN 0-415-18589-0 (Print Edition) To my mother, Rosemary Best Bard (1918-1997), and father, Robert Edward Bard (1918-) with thanks for all their encouragement, love, and support Contents List of illustrations Map How to use this Encyclopedia MX Acknowledgments |xxvi List of abbreviations List of contributors xxx Chronology of Ancient Egypt xliii Overview essays: Introduction |l| Paleolithic cultures g Epi-paleolithic cultures |l6| Neolithic cultures Predynastic period Early Dynastic period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period New Kingdom Third Intermediate Period |65| Late and Ptolemaic periods [70| Roman period [77| Entries A-Z Glossary Index 1092 1096 Illustrations Tables 1 Correlation of Paleolithic sequence in the Nile Valley 7 2 Distribution and chronological range of Late Paleolithic 13 industries in the lower Nile Valley 3 Chronology of tool production in the Near East 313 4 Site distribution in the Wadi Tumilat by wadi division 1080 Figures 1 Locations of published Lower Paleolithic sites 8 2 Predynastic sites in Egypt 25 3 Plan of the fort at Abu Sha'ar as it appeared following the 1993 91 excavations 4 Design on carved ivory seal, Abusir el-Meleq, grave 1035 101 5 Abydos North 107 6 Predynastic sites in the Abydos region 116 7 Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos, Cemeteries U and B (1992) 122 8 Inscribed labels from Tomb U-j, Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos 123 9 Tomb of King Qa'a, Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos 126 10 The mummy of Hefefi (from el-Hagarsa) in its wooden coffin 143 11 El-Alamein, Marina, monument and superstructure of Tomb 1 145 12 General view of the 1979 excavations at Kom el-Dikka 149 13 Plan of the major monuments in the central city at el- 169 Ashmunein 14 Archaeological sites in the Aswan region 176 15 Tentative plan of the Behbeit el-Hagara temple 191 16 The town of Berenike Panchrysos 200 17 The main fortress, Berenike Panchrysos 201 18 Bir Umm Fawakhir main settlement, southeast end 203 19 Buto, mound at Tell el-Fara'in 209 20 Remains of an Early Dynasty mudbrick building in Layer V at 212 Buto (Tell el-Fara'in) 21 Qila' el-Dabba, Balat, Dakhla Oasis: mastaba tomb of Ima- 256 Pepi I, courtyard 22 Qila' el-Dabba, Balat, Dakhla Oasis: mastaba tomb of Ima- 257 Pepi I, substructures 23 Plan of excavated remains at Ismat el-Kharab, Dakhla Oasis 262 24 Plan of Queen Hatshepsut's temple, Deir el-Bahri 277 25 The temple at Dendera 299 26 Wooden model of house and garden from the tomb of Meket- 304 Re at Deir el-Bahri (from H. Winlock) 27 Representation of Djehuty-Nefer's house in his tomb in 306 western Thebes (TT 104) and its interpretation (from H. Assad) 28 Plan of the Nubian fort at Dorginarti, Levels III and IV 309 29 Dynastic stone blades, late Predynastic to New Kingdom 312 30 Temple of Satet, Elephantine: lst/2nd Dynasties (left), 4th/5th 336 Dynasties (right) 31 Plan of Elephantine in the 1st Dynasty 337 32 Plan of Elephantine in the Middle Kingdom 339 33 Plan of Elephantine in the New Kingdom 340 34 Plan of Elephantine in the Graeco-Roman period 341 35 The enclosure wall of Elkab and its immediate surroundings 346 36 Reconstruction of the Gebel Barkal temples 388 37 Map of the site of Gebel el-Haridi, with enlargement showing 391 the mudbrick settlement on the lower slopes of Abu el-Nasr (possibly a fortified monastery) 38 Gebel Zeit, plan of Mine 399: the three main levels 401 39 Tomb of Queen Hetepheres at Giza: detail of the butterfly- 406 pattern bracelets as discovered lying in her jewelry box in 1926 40 Drawing of the reconstructed contents of the tomb of Queen 407 Hetepheres at Giza 41 Mortuary temple of Khafre's pyramid complex 410 42 Diorite statue of Khafre found in the valley temple 411 43 Valley temple and Sphinx Temple of Khafre 's pyramid 413 complex 44 The Giza pyramids 414 45 Cross-section plan of Khufu's pyramid tomb at Giza 415 46 Plan of King Menkaure's pyramid complex at Giza 420 47 Alabaster statue of King Menkaure 421 48 Tombs of Giza artisans 426 49 Gurob, New Kingdom settlement and northern cemeteries 430 50 Location of Akhenaten's Gm-p3-itn temple at East Karnak 472 51 Karnak, plan of the Montu precinct 474 52 Karnak, precinct of Mut 478 53 Plan of the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak 482 54 Theban necropolis, western part of the Late period necropolis 522 at el-Asasif 55 A typical tomb of the 26th Dynasty at el-Asasif (belonging to 524 Ankh-Hor, High Steward of the Divine Votaress) 56 A typical tomb of the 26th Dynasty at Saqqara (belonging to 525 Amen-Tefnakht, Commander of the Recruits of the Royal Guards) 57 Plan of the temple of Luxor 542 58 Ma'adi pottery 550 59 King Herihor offering ma'at to Khonsu 554 60 Map of Lake Maryut/Mareotis, showing the location of Marea 560 61 Plan of Marea waterfront (by Thomas Boyd) 561 62 Plan of structures on Bates's Island, Marsa Matruh 565 63 Central Marsa Matruh and the eastern lagoon system as far east 567 as Ras Alam el-Rum 64 Medamud: A, types of bread molds found at the site; B, plan of 574 the First Intermediate Period temple; C, plan of the Middle Kingdom temple 65 Medamud: plan of the Graeco-Roman period temple 576 66 The monuments at Medinet Habu, overall plan 580 67 View of the western cemetery at Giza, taken from the top of 595 the Great Pyramid 68 Basic elements of a typical Old Kingdom mastaba tomb 597 69 Plan of the Neolithic site of Merimde 605 70 Plan of the site of Meroe and its cemeteries 610 71 Plan of the Northern "Royal Cemetery" (Beg N) at Meroe 612 72 Conjectural restoration of pyramids Beg N 11, Beg N 12 and 613 Beg N 13 at Meroe 73 Map of the city of Meroe 618 74 Plan of the "Sun Temple" complex at Meroe 621 75 "Elite" burial of the 1st Dynasty at Minshat Abu Omar with 638 two chambers; the larger chamber had been robbed (Tomb 1590) 76 Mons Porphyrites, settlements and quarries 641 77 Wooden model boat with crew, intended for the tomb owner to 645 sail south (upstream) with the wind.

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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt/edited by Kathryn A. From Hawara 82 Map of Naga ed-Deir sites, circa 1900 666 83 Petrie's Predynastic sites in the Nagada region 671 84 Stages in the manufacture of a Predynastic bifacial knife 684 85 Predynastic stone tools 685 86 Lower Paleolithic handax (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 723 87 Middle Paleolithic flake-tools (a, c, e) and Levallois flakes (b, 724 d, f-h) (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 88 Upper Paleolithic blade-tools and and flake-tools (from a site 726 near Edfu) 89 Late Paleolithic bladelet-tools (from a site near Esna) 727 90 Late Paleolithic ostrich eggshell, ground stone and bone tools 728 (from Wadi Kubbaniya) 91 Sites of the Persian period in Egypt 740 92 Subterranean chambers showing wall paintings and engaged 824 statuary, tomb of Queen Meresankh III at Giza (G 7530-7540) 93 Decorated class pot with scenes of boats, ostriches and the 831 "Nagada plant" 94 Map of the Eastern Desert with principal routes and emporia, 835 on both the Nile and the Red Sea 95 Wall reliefs in the tomb of General Horemheb in the New 850 Kingdom necropolis at Saqqara 96 The tomb of Iniuia in the New Kingdom cemetery, Saqqara 851 97 1st and 2nd Dynasty tombs at North Saqqara 856 98 Model of Zoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara 860 99 Cross-section of Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara, showing the 863 different stages of construction 100 Map of the sacred animal necropolis, Saqqara 870 101 Plan of Serapeum Saqqara 873 102 Map of the monuments and inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim, 882 Sinai 103 Relief of a ship from a pyramid temple of Sahure, 5th Dynasty 891 104 North Sinai, granary at New Kingdom site BEA-10 898 105 Location of Siwa Oasis and the Qattara Depression in the 901 Western Desert 106 Archaeological plan of the area from Aghurmi to Ubayda 903 107 Relief in the Umm 'Ubaydah temple, Siwa Oasis: processions 904 of gods and King Wenamen wearing the Libyan chief's ostrich feather headdress and kneeling in front of the shrine of Amen 108 An 18th Dynasty representation of the stone vessel drilling and 915 boring tool 109 Tell el-Amarna, general plan and city limits 932 110 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the central city zone 933 111 Tell el-Amarna, Stela N 935 112 Tell el-Amarna, restored plan of the Great Temple sanctuary 936 113 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the house of Hatiay, Overseer of the 938 King's Works 114 Sketch of the three successive fortresses at Tell el-Herr (1988) 957 115 Royal funerary temples in West Thebes 998 116 A, Medinet Habu, 18th Dynasty temple; B, Funerary temple of 1001 Tuthmose II 117 Funerary temple of Hatshepsut 1002 118 Funerary temple of Tuthmose III 1002 119 Funerary temple of Seti I 1003 120 Funerary temple of Ramesses II 1003 121 Funerary temple of Ramesses III 1004 122 Thebes, el-Tarif, potsherds from the Tarifian layer, sixth 1012 millennium BC 123 Plan of Tomb KV5, Valley of the Kings, Thebes 1019 124 Thebes, the Valley of the Queens, plan of tombs in the main 1022 wadi 125 Predynastic and Early Dynastic cemeteries in the Ma'adi-Tura 1043 region 126 Plan of the tomb of Tutankhamen 1047 127 Remains of the Sadd el-Kafara dam in the Wadi Garawi in 1059 1982 (view from upstream) 128 Upstream face of the northern wall (right bank of the wadi) 1061 129 Location of recorded scripts at Wadi Maghara, Sinai 1073 Map of Egypt showing sites described in this work 1 Abu Gurab 2 Abu Roash 3 Abu Sha'ar 4 Abusir 5 Abydos 6 el-Ada'ima 7 Akhmim 8 Antinoopolis 9 Apis 10 Armant 11 Asyut 12 el-Badari 13 Balabish 14 Behbeit el-Hagara 15 Beni Hasan 16 Berenike 17 Berenike Panchrysos 18 Bir Umm Fawakhir 19 Busiris 20 Buto 21 Dahshur 22 Dakhla 23 Deir el-Ballas 24 Deir el-Bersha 25 Dendera 26 Dorginarti 27 Edfu 28 Farafra part of region 29 Farafra part of region 30 Fayum 31 Gebel Barkal 32 Gebel el-Haridi 33 Gebel el-Silsila 34 Gebel Zeit 35 Gebelein 36 Gurob 37 Hatnub 38 Hawara 39 Helwan 40 Heracleopolis 41 Hierakonpolis 42 Hu/Hiw 43 Kafr Tarkhan 44 Kerma 45 Kharga Oasis 46 Kom Abu Bello 47 Kom el-Hisn 48 Kom Ombo 49 el-Kurru 50 Lahun 51 el-Lisht 52 Mama 53 Mazghuna 54 Meir 55 Mendes 56 Meydum 57 Mons Porphyrites 58 Naga ed-Deir 59 Nagada 60 Naukratis 61 Nuri 62 el-Omari 63 Oxyrhynchus 64 Philae 65 Qantir/Pi-Ramesses 66 Qasr Ibrim 67 Qau el-Kebir (Antaeopolis) 68 Quft 69Qus 70 Quseir el-Qadim 71 Sanam 72 Saqqara 73 Seila 74 Serabit el-Khadim 75 Sikait-Zubara 76 Siwa Oasis 77 Tanis 78 Taposiris Magna 79 Tell el-Amarna 80 Tell Basta 81 Tell ed-Dab'a 82 Tell el-Farkha 83 Tell el-Herr 84 Tell el-Mashkuta 85 Tell el-Muqdam 86 Tell el-Yahudiya 87 Thebes, Qurnet Murai 88 Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna 89 Thmuis 90 Tod 91 Tukh el-Qaramus 92 Tuna el-Gebel 93 Tura 94 Wadi el-Hudi 95 Wadi Garawi 96 Wadi Gasus 97 Wadi Hammamat 98 Wadi Abu Had 99 Wadi Maghara 100 Wadi Kubbaniya 101 Wadi Tumilat 102 Zawiyet el-Aryan 103 Baharia e*™*^ ,h Mopoki .:-ufii) J f' ■■ HJanafc GLUD j CAIRO ^ V - 5phri Map of Cairo showing sites described in this work ■ -^ Luxor Map of Thebes showing sites described in this work How to use this Encyclopedia Structure The Encyclopedia opens with a map of the region and a chronology which provides a context for the material which follows.

Janet Johnson and Donald Whitcomb were helpful in discussions as the project evolved.

Tim Kendall suggested that Nubian sites should also be included in the encyclopedia, and while a number of Nubian sites are missing, some of the major ones that are relevant to the culture of ancient Egypt can be found in this volume.

Hierakonpolis; sometimes it is the modern Arabic name for the (nearby) town, e.g. Please use the index for guidance on alternative names.

d transliteration of Egyptian words, for example, hwt , Acknowledgments Work on this book began in 1991 at the instigation of Kennie Lyman, and many friends and colleagues were helpful in its undertaking. Edwards, with whom I had the great privilege to engage in a correspondence that was both educational and enjoyable.

||

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt/edited by Kathryn A. From Hawara 82 Map of Naga ed-Deir sites, circa 1900 666 83 Petrie's Predynastic sites in the Nagada region 671 84 Stages in the manufacture of a Predynastic bifacial knife 684 85 Predynastic stone tools 685 86 Lower Paleolithic handax (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 723 87 Middle Paleolithic flake-tools (a, c, e) and Levallois flakes (b, 724 d, f-h) (from Bir Tarfawi, Western Desert) 88 Upper Paleolithic blade-tools and and flake-tools (from a site 726 near Edfu) 89 Late Paleolithic bladelet-tools (from a site near Esna) 727 90 Late Paleolithic ostrich eggshell, ground stone and bone tools 728 (from Wadi Kubbaniya) 91 Sites of the Persian period in Egypt 740 92 Subterranean chambers showing wall paintings and engaged 824 statuary, tomb of Queen Meresankh III at Giza (G 7530-7540) 93 Decorated class pot with scenes of boats, ostriches and the 831 "Nagada plant" 94 Map of the Eastern Desert with principal routes and emporia, 835 on both the Nile and the Red Sea 95 Wall reliefs in the tomb of General Horemheb in the New 850 Kingdom necropolis at Saqqara 96 The tomb of Iniuia in the New Kingdom cemetery, Saqqara 851 97 1st and 2nd Dynasty tombs at North Saqqara 856 98 Model of Zoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara 860 99 Cross-section of Zoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara, showing the 863 different stages of construction 100 Map of the sacred animal necropolis, Saqqara 870 101 Plan of Serapeum Saqqara 873 102 Map of the monuments and inscriptions at Serabit el-Khadim, 882 Sinai 103 Relief of a ship from a pyramid temple of Sahure, 5th Dynasty 891 104 North Sinai, granary at New Kingdom site BEA-10 898 105 Location of Siwa Oasis and the Qattara Depression in the 901 Western Desert 106 Archaeological plan of the area from Aghurmi to Ubayda 903 107 Relief in the Umm 'Ubaydah temple, Siwa Oasis: processions 904 of gods and King Wenamen wearing the Libyan chief's ostrich feather headdress and kneeling in front of the shrine of Amen 108 An 18th Dynasty representation of the stone vessel drilling and 915 boring tool 109 Tell el-Amarna, general plan and city limits 932 110 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the central city zone 933 111 Tell el-Amarna, Stela N 935 112 Tell el-Amarna, restored plan of the Great Temple sanctuary 936 113 Tell el-Amarna, plan of the house of Hatiay, Overseer of the 938 King's Works 114 Sketch of the three successive fortresses at Tell el-Herr (1988) 957 115 Royal funerary temples in West Thebes 998 116 A, Medinet Habu, 18th Dynasty temple; B, Funerary temple of 1001 Tuthmose II 117 Funerary temple of Hatshepsut 1002 118 Funerary temple of Tuthmose III 1002 119 Funerary temple of Seti I 1003 120 Funerary temple of Ramesses II 1003 121 Funerary temple of Ramesses III 1004 122 Thebes, el-Tarif, potsherds from the Tarifian layer, sixth 1012 millennium BC 123 Plan of Tomb KV5, Valley of the Kings, Thebes 1019 124 Thebes, the Valley of the Queens, plan of tombs in the main 1022 wadi 125 Predynastic and Early Dynastic cemeteries in the Ma'adi-Tura 1043 region 126 Plan of the tomb of Tutankhamen 1047 127 Remains of the Sadd el-Kafara dam in the Wadi Garawi in 1059 1982 (view from upstream) 128 Upstream face of the northern wall (right bank of the wadi) 1061 129 Location of recorded scripts at Wadi Maghara, Sinai 1073 Map of Egypt showing sites described in this work 1 Abu Gurab 2 Abu Roash 3 Abu Sha'ar 4 Abusir 5 Abydos 6 el-Ada'ima 7 Akhmim 8 Antinoopolis 9 Apis 10 Armant 11 Asyut 12 el-Badari 13 Balabish 14 Behbeit el-Hagara 15 Beni Hasan 16 Berenike 17 Berenike Panchrysos 18 Bir Umm Fawakhir 19 Busiris 20 Buto 21 Dahshur 22 Dakhla 23 Deir el-Ballas 24 Deir el-Bersha 25 Dendera 26 Dorginarti 27 Edfu 28 Farafra part of region 29 Farafra part of region 30 Fayum 31 Gebel Barkal 32 Gebel el-Haridi 33 Gebel el-Silsila 34 Gebel Zeit 35 Gebelein 36 Gurob 37 Hatnub 38 Hawara 39 Helwan 40 Heracleopolis 41 Hierakonpolis 42 Hu/Hiw 43 Kafr Tarkhan 44 Kerma 45 Kharga Oasis 46 Kom Abu Bello 47 Kom el-Hisn 48 Kom Ombo 49 el-Kurru 50 Lahun 51 el-Lisht 52 Mama 53 Mazghuna 54 Meir 55 Mendes 56 Meydum 57 Mons Porphyrites 58 Naga ed-Deir 59 Nagada 60 Naukratis 61 Nuri 62 el-Omari 63 Oxyrhynchus 64 Philae 65 Qantir/Pi-Ramesses 66 Qasr Ibrim 67 Qau el-Kebir (Antaeopolis) 68 Quft 69Qus 70 Quseir el-Qadim 71 Sanam 72 Saqqara 73 Seila 74 Serabit el-Khadim 75 Sikait-Zubara 76 Siwa Oasis 77 Tanis 78 Taposiris Magna 79 Tell el-Amarna 80 Tell Basta 81 Tell ed-Dab'a 82 Tell el-Farkha 83 Tell el-Herr 84 Tell el-Mashkuta 85 Tell el-Muqdam 86 Tell el-Yahudiya 87 Thebes, Qurnet Murai 88 Thebes, Sheikh Abd el-Qurna 89 Thmuis 90 Tod 91 Tukh el-Qaramus 92 Tuna el-Gebel 93 Tura 94 Wadi el-Hudi 95 Wadi Garawi 96 Wadi Gasus 97 Wadi Hammamat 98 Wadi Abu Had 99 Wadi Maghara 100 Wadi Kubbaniya 101 Wadi Tumilat 102 Zawiyet el-Aryan 103 Baharia e*™*^ ,h Mopoki .:-ufii) J f' ■■ HJanafc GLUD j CAIRO ^ V - 5phri Map of Cairo showing sites described in this work ■ -^ Luxor Map of Thebes showing sites described in this work How to use this Encyclopedia Structure The Encyclopedia opens with a map of the region and a chronology which provides a context for the material which follows.Janet Johnson and Donald Whitcomb were helpful in discussions as the project evolved.Tim Kendall suggested that Nubian sites should also be included in the encyclopedia, and while a number of Nubian sites are missing, some of the major ones that are relevant to the culture of ancient Egypt can be found in this volume.Hierakonpolis; sometimes it is the modern Arabic name for the (nearby) town, e.g. Please use the index for guidance on alternative names.d transliteration of Egyptian words, for example, hwt , Acknowledgments Work on this book began in 1991 at the instigation of Kennie Lyman, and many friends and colleagues were helpful in its undertaking. Edwards, with whom I had the great privilege to engage in a correspondence that was both educational and enjoyable.

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